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History of Russia

Russian History

Major Dates in Russian History

This page dates the major (and some not so major) events in Russian history and links them with explanatory and related materials on the Web.


Date Event
c. 860
  • First Slav attack on Constantinople
  • Cyrillic alphabet devised
  • 862 - 879
  • Ryurik (Rurik) as a ruler of Novgorod
  • 879 - 913
  • Oleg first ruler at Kiev
  • 882
  • Novgorod and Kiev united
  • 911
  • First Russian treaty with Constantinople
  • 913 - 945
  • Igor as ruler of Kiev
  • 944
  • Igor of Kiev makes treaty with Constantinople
  • 945 - 964
  • Olga (widow of Igor) as a ruler of Kiev
  • 945 - 972
  • Svyatoslav I
  • 955
  • Olga of Kiev baptized
  • 967
  • Svyatoslav of Kiev sacks Khazaria
  • 973 - 978/980
  • Yaropolk I
  • 988 / 989
  • Christianity officially adopted
  • 1015
  • Boris and Gleb martyred
  • 1025
  • The town Yaroslavl founded
  • 1037
  • St. Sophia, Kiev, begun
  • 1043
  • St. Sophia, Novgorod, begun
  • c. 1050 ?
  • St. Hilarion's On the law and the Grace
  • 1051
  • First native Russian metropolitan elected
  • 1097
  • Princely conference at Lyubech
  • c. 1100
  • Instruction of Vladimir II Monomakh
  • 1108
  • The town Vladimir founded
  • 1113
  • Primary Cronicle completed
  • c. 1125
  • The icon Virgin of Vladimir was made
  • 1156
  • The town Moscow (Moskva) founded
  • 1158
  • Dormition Cathedral built in Vladimir
  • 1187
  • Igor Tale
  • 1198
  • Church of the Savior built on Nereditsa Hill, Novgorod
  • 1221
  • The town Nizhniy Novgorod founded
  • 1223
  • First Tatar raid
  • 1240
  • Tatar rule established in Rus
  • 1242
  • Alexander Nevsky defeats Teutonic Knights
  • 1270
  • Novgorod signs treaty with Hanseatic League
  • 1300
  • Metropolitan see transferred from Kiev to Vladimir
  • 1318
  • Yury of Moscow obtains Yarlyk from Tatars
  • 1340
  • St Sergius founds Trinity Monastery
  • 1378
  • Theophanes the Greek active in Novgorod
  • 1380
  • Dmitriy Donskoy defeats Tatars at Kulikovo
  • 1392
  • Moscow annexes Nizhniy Novgorod and Suzdal
  • 1405
  • Iconostasis of Annunciation Cathedral, Moscow
  • 1410
  • Rublyov's Old Testament Trinity icon
  • Lithuanians defeat Teutonic knights at Tannenberg
  • 1428
  • Solovki monastery founded
  • 1453
  • Constantinople falls to Ottoman Turks
  • 1458
  • Lithuanians set up rival Orthodox metropolitan
  • 1475 - 1479
  • Fioravanti builds Dormition Cathedral in Moscow
  • 1478
  • Ivan III crushes Novgorod
  • 1480
  • Ivan III ends tribute to tatars
  • 1494
  • Ivan III closes Hanseatic depot in Novgorod
  • c. 1500 - 1550
  • Trinity Chronicle
  • 1503
  • Church council supports Josephites
  • 1505
  • Archangel Cathedral, Moscow, begun
  • 1510
  • Vasiliy III annexes Pskov
  • 1514
  • Moscow absorbs territory of Smolensk
  • 1532
  • Church of the Ascension, Kolomenskoe
  • 1547
  • Ivan IV assumes title of "Tsar"
  • 1550
  • Sudebuik (law code)
  • 1551
  • Council of Hundred Chapters
  • 1552
  • Ivan IV conquers Kazan
  • 1555
  • Muscovy company formed in London
  • St. Basil's Katehdral, Moscow built
  • 1564
  • First book printed in Moscow
  • 1577
  • Commercial links established with Holland
  • 1582
  • Conquest of western Siberia
  • 1584
  • Archangel founded
  • 1589
  • Patriarchate of Moscow founded
  • 1596
  • Union of Brest
  • Smolensk Kremlin established
  • 1598
  • Fyodor I, last Ryurikid ruler, dies
  • 1605
  • Time of troubles begins
  • 1613 - 1645
  • First Romanov ruler
    Mikhail Romanov, son of Fyodor Romanov, who later became Metropolitan Filaret begins the era of Romanov dynasty
  • 1618
  • "Marvelous Church" built at Uglich
  • 1632
  • Town Irkutsk founded
  • 1649
  • Ulozhenie (new legal code) promulgated
  • Church of the Nativity built in Putinki, Moscow
  • 1652
  • Nikon became partiarch of Moscow
  • 1658
  • Nikon's New Jerusalem begun
  • 1666
  • Church council deposes Nikon but confirms reforms
  • 1667 - 1670
  • Palace of Kolomenskoe built
  • 1670 - 1671
  • Revolt of Stenka Razin
  • 1680
  • Mestnichestvo abolished
  • 1682
  • Archpriest Avvakum martyred
  • 1686
  • Treaty with Poland confirms Russian possession of Kiev
  • 1687
  • Slav-Greek-Latin established in Moscow
  • 1689
  • Treaty of Nerchinsk singned with China
  • 1697 - 1698
  • Peter I's Great Embassy
  • 1700
  • Start of Great Northern War
  • 1703
  • Site of St. Petersburg captured from Swedes
  • Russia's first newspaper published
  • 1704
  • Old Admiralty built in St. Petersburg
  • 1709
  • Peter I defeats Charles (Carl) XII in Poltava
  • 1712
  • Peter I transfers seat of government to St. Petersburg
  • 1714
  • Church of the transfiguration, Kizhi island
  • 1721
  • Peace treaty of Nystad
  • Patriarchate abolished
  • 1725
  • Academy of Science founded at St. Petersburg
  • 1740 - 1750
  • Dukhobor sect founded
  • 1752
  • Letter on the Utility of Glass by Mikhail Lomonosov
  • 1754
  • Winter Palace (by architect B. Rastrelli) built in St. Petersburg
  • 1755
  • Moscow University founded
  • 1757
  • Academy of Arts founded in St. Petersburg
  • 1762
  • Centry liberated from obligatory service
  • 1766 - 1782
  • Bronze horseman statue (by Falconet) built in St. Petersburg
  • 1767
  • Legislative commission
  • 1772
  • First partition of Poland
  • 1773 - 1775
  • Pugatchov rebellion
  • 1783
  • Annexation of Crimea
  • 1785
  • Charter of Nobility
  • 1790
  • Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow by Radishchev
  • 1793
  • Second partition of Poland
  • 1795
  • Third partition of Poland
  • 1793
  • Sitka founded as capital of Alaska
  • 1806
  • Admiralty building in St. Petersburg remodeled
  • 1807
  • Treaty of Tilsit signed with Napoleon
  • 1812
  • French invade Russia
  • 1814
  • M.Yu. Lermontov born
  • 1816
  • Karamzin, History of the Russian State
  • 1821
  • October 30. : F.M. Dostoevsky born in Moscow
  • 1823
  • Evgeny onegin by A.S. Pushkin published
  • 1825
  • Decembrist uprising
  • 1830
  • revolt in Polish provinces
  • 1832
  • Duchy of Warsaw becomes part of Russia
  • 1837
  • January 29. : A.S. Pushkin dies because of a duel
  • 1840
  • Hero of our Time by M.Yu. Lermontov published
  • 1842
  • Dead souls by N.V. Gogol published
  • 1853
  • Outbreak of Crimean war
  • 1860
  • Vladivostok founded
  • 1861
  • Emancipation of serfs
  • Fathers and sons by I.S. Turgenev published
  • 1864
  • first part of the novel War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy (Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy) published
  • 1867
  • Alaska sold to the USA (for $7.2 million)
  • 1870
  • V.I. Lenin born in the town Simbirsk (later Ulyanovsk)
  • 1871
  • First Wanderers' exhibition
  • 1873 - 1874
  • first To the people movement
  • 1879
  • first part of the novel Brothers Karamazov by F.M. Dostoevsky published
  • December 21. : In the town of Gori, Georgia borns Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugasvili (later known as Stalin)
  • 1881
  • F.M. Dostoevsky dies in St. Petersburg
  • 1891
  • Building of Trans-Siberian Railroad begun
  • 1897
  • Moscow Art Theatre founded
  • 1904 - 1905
  • Russo-Japanese War
  • 1906
  • first Duma
  • December 19: L.I. Brezhnev is born in Kamenskoe, Ukraine
  • 1914 - 1918
  • World War I
  • 1917
  • February : February Revolution
  • October : The Socialist October Revolution
  • 1917 - 1920
  • Civil War in Russia
  • 1918
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk stops hostilities between Soviet Russia and the Central Powers.
  • 1922
  • April : I.V. Stalin becames General Secretary of the Central Comittee of the Comminist Party
  • May 25. : V.I. Lenin has a major stroke, then two more and becomes disabled.
  • 1923
  • The Union of Soviet Socialistic Republics (USSR) formed
  • 1924
  • January 20: V.I. Lenin dies
  • 1934
  • December: Leader of the Leningrad Communist Party, S. Kirov is murdered
  • 1939
  • Nonaggression pact with Germany
  • November 31: Russo-Finnish war begins
  • 1939 - 1945
  • The World War II
  • 1941
  • Hitler invades USSR
  • 1947 - 1989
  • The Cold War
  • 1953
  • March : Stalin dies
  • March 22. : Nikita S. Khrushchev becames the first secreatary of CPSU
  • 1955
  • Warsaw Pact
  • 1956
  • Hungarian uprising crushed
  • 1957
  • Sputnik I launched, the first man-made object in space, displaying advancement of the Soviet space program
  • 1962
  • Cuban missile crisis
  • 1964
  • Leader of the state N.S. Khrushchev deposed
  • October 14. : L.I. Brezhnev becames the first secreatary of CC CPSU
  • 1968
  • "Prague Spring"
  • 1971
  • N.S. Khrushchev dies
  • 1977
  • June : L.I. Brezhnev replaces Nikolay Podgorny as a president of USSR
  • 1979
  • Invasion of Afganistan
  • 1980
  • Olympic games in Moscow
  • Vladimir Vysotsky dies in Moscow
  • 1982
  • November 10. : L.I. Brezhnev dies from hard attack
  • November 12. : Yuri V. Andropov elected genearl secretary of CPSU
  • 1984
  • February 9. : Yu.V. Andropov dies
  • February 13. : K.U. Chernenko elected the General secretary of CPSU
  • 1985
  • March 10. : K.U. Chernenko dies
  • March 11. : Mikhail Gorbachev becames the first secretary of CPSU
  • 1986
  • Perestroyka begins
  • 1988
  • October: M.S. Gorbachev elected President of the USSR
  • 1989
  • First multicandidate elections in the USSR
  • Last soviet troops leave Afganistan
  • 1990
  • M.S. Gorbachev wins Nobel Peace Prize
  • 1991
  • January: Crackdowns in Baltic countries Lithuania and Latvia
  • August 19. - 23: The Soviet coup (G K CH P)
  • August 24: M.S. Gorbachev resigns as head of CPSU
  • December 25: Resigns as president of the USSR
  • END OF THE SOVIET UNION


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